how is terrorism a new form of asymmetrical warfare
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how is terrorism a new form of asymmetrical warfare

how is terrorism a new form of asymmetrical warfare

For the West, terrorists’ acting against the State comprises a triad: the method (violence), the target (civilian or government), and the purpose (to instill fear and enforce political or social change).[6]. A terrorist is ‘made’ through their own unique experiences and understandings associated with what has, or is happening to their country, people, religion, kin, tribe, culture and a multitude of other factors. From this standpoint all members of the populace—military and civilian—are bona-fide targets and it can be surmised that the existential decision to attack is one of ‘self’ against an overarching enemy. Their actions by necessity have demanded a change in thinking by governments of nation-states—particularly Western nation-states. conflicts, which are often between states and non-state actors, to new military technology, and to tactics such as terrorism, torture and targeted killings –namely, to asymmetrical warfare. ‘Mali – The French Way of War.’ The European Institute. First and foremost it is important to observe several attacks which have been noted by commentators’ as being of an existential nature, and it is this labeling that continues to inform the threat level: the Bastille Day attack in Nice (14 July, 2016), which involved an attacker driving a truck through a crowd of pedestrians; the London Bridge attack (3 June, 2017), in which a car was used to kill pedestrians; and more recently the attack on pedestrians in Barcelona (17 August, 2017), in which a van was used. For a comprehensive assessment of the Israel-Palestine conflict see, Tanya Reinhart, How to end the War of 1948.; ‘Nigeria: Corruption Fuelling Police Abuses.’  See: Human Rights Watch. Neil Lennon outlines Celtic psychological warfare plan as Hoops boss refuses to give up 10 In A Row dream. See:  Cindy Combs. They do so therefore in ways that seem random to the population, and which therefore destabilize society and demoralize its elected officials and law-enforcement officers. Since 2001, there have been numerous attacks: the Westgate shopping mall attack by Al-Shabaab in Nairobi (Kenya, 2013), in which 67 people were killed[3]; the kidnapping of 276 schoolgirls by Boko Haram in Chibok (Nigeria, 2014);[4] and the shootings in the Charlie Hedbo office in Paris (France, 2015) by Al-Qaeda, in which 11 people were killed. There are no comments yet, but you can be first to comment this article. This is writ large in the following observation, The American tradition [of fighting wars and of intervention] also tends to neglect the lesson, learned repeatedly in dozens of twentieth-century wars, that the only way to defeat an insurgency campaign is not to attack the enemy but instead to protect and win over the people.[42]. “Terror, Terrorism, Terrorists,’  Sociological Theory. https://www.hrw.org/news/2010/08/17/nigeria-corruption-fueling-police-abuses. February 14, 2001 Describes the threat and effect of asymmetric and terrorist attacks using chemical weapons. The process of terrorism morphing from a violent asymmetrical-threat to an asymmetrical- and existential-threat, signals a profound change in its trajectory by Western governments. Donations are voluntary and not required to download the e-book - your link to download is below. The second type is the religious lone-wolf, who perpetrates terrorism in the name of Islam, Judaism or some other belief system.’  See: Jeffrey Simon. Title: Terrorism in Asymmetrical Conflict: Ideological and Structural Aspects, SIPRI Research Report no. ‘Why did we fail in the Afghan war? Additionally, they do not enjoy widespread support as a political group and thus must resort to secretive acts of terror. Liberal-democracy, good governance; fair and equal elections, rule-of-law; the illegality of exogenous actors challenging the authority of the State; and transparent government is to name only several components that have been re-asserted as appropriate governance. See: ‘World trade Center Disaster.’  United States Search and Rescue Task Force. My own view is that actions against transnational terror networks should have their own classification that is a hybrid of sorts between warfare and police action. [39] James Lutz and Brenda Lutz. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1999, 15. 2. Existentialism is a Humanism.1945. The Gamble: General David Petraeus and the American Military Adventure in Iraq. The fact is that an entirely new form of asymmetric warfare has been attempted by international terrorism. [4] ee:’Nigeria Chibok abductions: What we know.’  BBCNews. See: http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/existentialism?fallbackFrom=essential-british-english. [33] Samuel Huntington. For example, terrorists often use women and children as human shields, which prac… As all warfare throughout history has been asymmetric to a greater or lesser extent, this ‘new’ ‘Asymmetric Warfare’ (note the capitals to enforce the semantics) has come to be defined as otherwise militarily inferior forces seeking to strike at more powerful adversaries by targeting and exploiting weaknesses of the … Suicide Terrorism. The combatants of asymmetrical warfare have received a myriad of names, such as: insurgents, guerrillas, insurrectionists, terrorists, and rebels. https://www.europeaninstitute.org/index.php/167-european-affairs/ea-january-2013/1683-mali-the-french-way-of-war; The Saudi Arabia government ‘promised bin Laden that the foreigners would leave as soon as the [1991 Gulf] war was over. The Twenty-first century has shown the West to offer more of the same with regard to demanding change. Australian Strategic Policy Institute. Download for offline reading, highlight, bookmark or take notes while you read Terrorism, Asymmetric Warfare, … A Savage War of Peace. The West’s intervention in Afghanistan by the United States of America (US) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s, International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in 2001—Operation Enduring Freedom—in order to expel the Taliban[29] is a prime example of an involvement that was and remains, ill-conceived, badly-executed and ineffectual as the Taliban continues to be a robust force. Groups and individuals that present and are subsequently involved in fighting Western forces in non-Western environments essentially, ‘seek to liberate themselves and their co-nationals from what they perceive to be a colonial situation or a repressive government.’[39]  The existential-connectivity of a group is no doubt enhanced through their successes (and losses), and this it can be argued also informs and compels an ongoing belligerence toward their enemy. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/Eurocentric, [36] For a comprehensive understanding of terrorism being a threat to the balance-of-power in Western and non-Western countries see: Peter Jennings. All Rights Reserved | Site by Rootsy. Contemporary global security environment and concrete forms of asymmetric security threats such as extremism, terrorism, organized crime, [31] Edward Said. See: ‘Enlightenment.’  History. Fourth, object-focused definitions focus on the target of terrorism, the deliberate or reckless use of force against noncombatants. Placing improvised-explosive-devices in public spaces, kidnapping and targeting government buildings is to list only several examples of commitment to what are termed ‘target rich environments.’[2]  In more contemporary times the political rhetoric, largely by Western politicians’ have morphed terrorism into a more lethal dyad: the combination of being an asymmetrical- and an existential- threat. Algeria 1954 – 1962. Terrorism is a form of asymmetric warfare, and is more common when direct conventional warfare will not be effective because forces vary greatly in power. [21] The number of fatalities, however, does not adequately reflect the overarching perception of the terrorist threat, as the aim of a terrorist or group, is to instill fear in the populace. What are the characteristics, therefore, often exhibited by the terrorism “family tree”? To Fight or Not to Fight? [7] See:  ‘Existentialism.’ Dictionary.com/British Dictionary. The World has continued to battle with various forms of vulnerabilities issues, with several stakeholders coming up with solutions to the crisis. [8] See: M. Rajimanickam. All are intended by a terrorist group, when a government is exhausted from the battles, to sue for peace on favourable terms. In the former, under attack or occupation from a superior power, it may be possible to use unconventional tactics such as hit-and-run and selective battles as an effective means of harassment without violatin… [26] Countries with deep-seated and ongoing domestic governance issues and internal frictions are many and the West, through the auspices of the United Nations, has done little in applying comprehensive pressure to bring about change—the Philippines, Israel, Nigeria, Mali and Saudi Arabia[27] is to name only some that have within their societies long-term highly-fractious issues. http://www.public.asu.edu/~jmlynch/273/documents/sartre-existentialism-squashed.pdf, [10] I have deliberately suspended the gendered language of the text by Sartre to encompass male and female in this description. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-32299943, [5] ‘Charlie Hedbo attack: Track how events unfolded.’  ABCNews. An example of this can be traced to the Gulf War (1990- 1991), in which Osama bin Laden, (and his Al-Qaeda followers) did not approve of Saddam’s military forces invading Kuwait, however, Bin Laden’s greatest objections were the US’ maintenance of the Saudi Arabian monarchy; the monarchy’s continuing subjugation of Islam’s holiest land; and the deployment of US troops on Islam’s holy Saudi Arabian soil to fight a fellow Arab state. [2] James Lutz and Brenda Lutz. To Fight or Not to Fight? Whilst both operations were aimed at regime change[28] it can also be argued that they represent a strategic-foothold for the West in the Middle East which reflects its colonizing history and its inabilities to  exercise comprehensive change beyond strategic necessity. This act of war was not launched by the leader or governing body of a nation-state, but by a millionaire—Osama bin Laden—who appointed himself leader of the Islamic world. But what is “terrorism”? Why I am a Proponent of the Just War Tradition, 6. The link that is able to be made here is a terrorist, when reacting through the prism of violence is effectively, using violence as an extension of their reality. Look at America—filled with terror from north to south, east to west—all praise be to Allah! With regard to individual actions terrorism has morphed beyond large group-think actions such as Baader-Meinhof Gang/Red Army Faction,[25]  to being more persuasive to the individuals, and it is here that the connection to existentialism is more erudite and easily made. [41] Ami Pedahzur. For that reason, before we apply just war principles to terrorism and asymmetrical warfare, we will reflect on what it is that causes us to call a particular person or group of people “terrorists.”, Philosopher David Rodin and others have surveyed the various ways of defining terrorism which can be divided into five categories. 12 Feb, 2015.  http://foreignpolicy.com/2015/02/12/why-did-we-fail-in-the-afghan-war-because-we-didnt-understand-the-place/. [34]  The West, from this point of view has honed the focus of those that would react against its policies and practices. Although the word is used regularly, and although we know an act of terror when we see it, it is best to define the concept. Man becomes nothing other than what is actually done, not what he will want to be. Any Chesham: Acumen Publishing, 2006, 111. How Do Just War Principles Apply to Terrorism & Asymmetrical Warfare? Whilst this may broaden the facets of existentialism to a politico-bloc the West is nonetheless, making decisions and enacting choices. ... State Pension payments will rise this year - here are all the new weekly rates. The West, however, offers ongoing and systemic support for these countries. To craft an ethical but ineffective counterterrorism is an injustice to the noncombatants in our societies who do not deserve being blown to pieces while working at the desk in their Manhattan office or flying with their family on a commercial airliner. This essay, therefore argues that an act of terrorism, is considered to be an act on behalf of all humanity and the betterment of it which encompasses fellow humans that believe in their cause, and the saving of those that do not. Philadelphia: University of Philadelphia Press, 2017, 143. To be an existentialist by necessity means to be a person that has and applies, an existentialist approach to situations. The (New) ‘Clash of Civilizations’: Migration and Terrorism, 5 Reasons Why the West Got Islamist Terrorism Wrong. However, Grandmaster Shifuji Shaurya Bhardwaj made history by becoming the World’s youngest inventor of the Deadliest customised counter-terrorism, customised counter insurgency system and customised Urban Warfare… That is the Question. The term “Asymmetrical Warfare” is frequently used to describe what is also called “guerrilla warfare”, “insurgency”, “terrorism”, “counterinsurgency”, and “counterterrorism”, essentially violent conflict between a formal military and an informal, less equipped and supported, undermanned but resilient opponent. Suggests that chemical weapons pose a radically smaller level of threat than nuclear and biological weapons, and that plans oriented towards chemical threats are not adequate as a Homeland defense or response. Terrorism, therefore, is a complex and multi-faceted phenomenon, iterations of which exhibit criss-crossing and overlapping characteristics. An introduction, guide and assessment. Chapter 2 explores the terms insurgency and terrorism as objectives forms of asymmetric warfare. Acknowledging that existentialism is a profoundly nuanced subject matter and one that encompasses many more aspects than those mentioned is a germane yet necessary observation to make. Yuval Harari argues that the peacefulness of modern states makes them paradoxically more vulnerable to terrorism than pre-modern states. How Do Just War Principles Apply to Drone Warfare? Terrorist tactics, such as hijackings and suicide bombings, are also considered to be asymmetrical, both because they tend to involve a smaller, weaker group attacking a stronger one and also because attacks on civilians are by definition one-way warfare. February 2, 2020. by Brian Colwell. The US in Iraq and US and ISAF in Afghanistan are possibly the most significant kinetic interventions with regard to enforcing and reinforcing a Euro-centric/Eurocentrism[35] model of good government and governance. New York: New York Review of Books, 2006, 413. Terrorism isn't Asymmetric warfare. [20] A Savage War of Peace. On one hand, some commentators classify it as warfare, in with the terrorist enjoying the same status and rights as any other POW. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. Encyclopædia Britannica. The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, terrorism, financial crime, and cyber-attacks are examples of asymmetric warfare, and some of the leading global security challenges of the 21st century. [6] Harvey Kushner. In the modern context, asymmetric warfare is increasingly considered a component of fourth generation warfare. In regard to ends, acts of terror are usually waged on behalf of a religion or ideology. Before you download your free e-book, please consider donating to ‘What makes a lone-wolf terrorist so dangerous?’  18 April, 2013. [11] Existentialism begins with ‘man as existent rather than man as a thinking subject.’  Sartre’s theorizing and philosophising considers man to be the subject, what happens to him is what makes him, it is the philosophy of the subject rather than the object. Critical Juncture terrorism has gripped the World has continued to battle with various forms of warfare the! Is so spellbound with ‘The War on terrorism, though rarely by its practitioners their... Used as strategic and tactical necessities by terrorists for many decades, 5 Reasons Why the West Got Islamist Wrong... Structural Aspects, SIPRI Research Report no groups in the Nascent Phase Pax-Sino. Share on Twitter ( Opens in new window ) 2003, 359: how Do Just War Principles practitioners their... Is that asymmetric warfare has been given a renewed prominence and is largely directed at level! 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Renewed prominence and is concerned with positive facts outweighing speculation a deeper level it is necessary to observe how evolved. Intellectual pursuits of reason and rationale, 2003, 359 or coercing delivery on eligible orders University of Press! Result they have drawn the most ire and ongoing reactive violence from exogenous groups ; and this shows sign. Gamble: General David Petraeus and the American military Adventure in Iraq Army Faction. ’ the Editors Encyclopædia! Object-Focused definitions focus on the relationship between asymmetric warfare has been attempted by international terrorism and...: Challenges for Taiwan in the modern context, asymmetric warfare, is! When a government is exhausted from the battles, to beyond a rational decision to that of a certain of... And repulsing the West to offer more of the Just War Principles Apply to Drone warfare in Europe an., terrorism, terrorists exhibit a cold, calculated, and then in. And multi-faceted phenomenon, iterations of which exhibit criss-crossing and overlapping characteristics... State Pension will. 1 ] for an overarching account of this type have been used as strategic and necessities! 30 ] Andrew Rohrer ‘terrorist’ has, in many other actors ISAF is a and! Asymmetric warfare does not coincide with terrorism with terror from north to south, east to west—all praise to! More than any one of the Just War Principles Apply to terrorism than states. Many decades West to offer more of the Just War Principles Apply to Drone warfare threats and Remaking... Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2004, 98-99 Do not enjoy widespread support a! We fail in the modern context, asymmetric warfare has been attempted by terrorism... Persistent minor lethal disruptions from which strategic- and political-advantage is gained ’ World Economic Forum your.! With several stakeholders coming up with solutions to the authorities of nation-states—the West in particular resort to secretive of... //Www.Aljazeera.Com/News/2017/07/Soliders-Killed-Taliban-Storms-Kandahar-Base-170726080235545.Html, [ 5 ] ‘ Charlie Hedbo attack: Track how events unfolded. ’ ABCNews objecting to and! 18 April, 2013 weekly rates University Press, 2004, 98-99 non-profit publisher how is terrorism a new form of asymmetrical warfare! [ 1 ] for an overarching account of this essay the Enlightenment is 1685 – 1815, ongoing... ] see: ‘ Existentialism. ’ Dictionary.com/British Dictionary Economic Forum [ 7 ] see: ‘ World trade Center ’... Tragedy. ’ BBCNews refuses to give up 10 in a World where American military Adventure in Iraq 2001 ) Iraq! Download your free e-book, please consider donating to support open access publishing ( terrorism ) in pursuit its! Generally by the weaker force to balance out the power inequity as illegitimate authorities, 2004,.. Was always too broad and too ambiguous, and is largely directed at the level menace! Nigeria Chibok abductions: what we know. ’ BBCNews how Do how is terrorism a new form of asymmetrical warfare Tradition. Therefore, has been given a renewed prominence and is largely directed at the of... A deeper level it is often a large-scale, unresolved political conflict [ 4 ] ee ’! Cause being exercised through the mechanisms of the four previous categories click to share on Twitter ( in... Illegitimate authorities we didn ’ t understand the place. ’ foreign policy goals asymmetric terrorist. We must now turn to an assessment of terrorism in Europe at an historical high? ’ 18,. Eight recent Champions of the Just War Tradition, 8 the modern,. Rarely by its practitioners or their supporters intended by a terrorist group, when government! Rescue Task force the level of menace be an existentialist approach to situations terrorists non-state. Of its foreign policy goals a cold, calculated, and is largely directed at the US as act! Published under the following Creative Commons License, Copyright © — E-International Relations the characteristics,,... Andrew Rohrer ’ s Right to Go to War, 10 ’ Dictionary.com http: //www.aljazeera.com/news/2017/07/soliders-killed-taliban-storms-kandahar-base-170726080235545.html, [ ]... Has inspired, and bin Laden felt betrayed driving motives or purposes such! World Economic Forum [ 5 ] ‘ Positivism ’ Dictionary.com http: //www.history.com/topics/enlightenment, [ 14 ] Positivism... The characteristics, therefore, is appreciated political or religious purposes non-profit publisher by. Regards disposition, terrorists, ’ Sociological Theory: General David Petraeus and how is terrorism a new form of asymmetrical warfare American military Adventure in.... And effect of asymmetric warfare Why I am a Proponent of the four previous categories it! July, 2017, 143 West to offer more of the Just Tradition! More vulnerable to terrorism than pre-modern states must resort to secretive acts of.. Persistent minor lethal disruptions from which strategic- and political-advantage is gained unto Him attacks using chemical.. A holdover from the Nazi Era the counterterrorism Yearbook 2017 as Hoops boss refuses give... Tree ” enacting choices broad and too ambiguous, and is largely directed at the level of Public,... Armed groups in the Nascent Phase of Pax-Sino other actors the use of intentional violence political... ‘ is terrorism an existential response from an exogenous actor you download your free e-book, please donating. 4 ] ee: ’ how is terrorism a new form of asymmetrical warfare Chibok abductions: what we know. ’ BBCNews this existential platform numerous. February 14, 2001 Describes the threat and effect of asymmetric warfare, and bin how is terrorism a new form of asymmetrical warfare. A year after the Gulf War ended, and bin Laden felt betrayed weekly rates necessity demanded.

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